Research Article

Related GMR Articles

Adaptive immunity; Bovine; Flow cytometry; Innate immunity; Leukocyte

Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown ... more

A.A. Macêdo; A.P.V. Marciano; L.M. Rocha; J.R.F. Alves-Júnior; A.M.C. Faria; J.F.F. Bittar; M.S.S. Araújo; R.L. Santos; O.A. Martins-Filho
Innate immunity; Molecular evolution; PGLYRP1 gene; Positive selection; Primate; Purifying selection

Short-type peptidoglycan (PGN)-recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), an innate immunity protein that directly breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall PGNs, plays an important role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases. To explore the adaptive evolution of the PGLYRP1 gene in primates and provide insight into the function of this antibacterial ... more

W. Liu; Y.F. Yao; L. Zhou; Q.Y. Ni; H.L. Xu
Atlantic salmon; Infections pancreatic necrosis virus; Innate immunity; TLR3; Toll-like receptor

Innate pathway activation is fundamental for early anti-viral defense in fish, but currently there is insufficient understanding of how salmonid fish identify viral molecules and activate these pathways. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) is believed to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in the innate immune system. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Salmo ... more

R. Vidal; R. González; F. Gil
Cytokinin; Duplication; Maize (Zea mays); Phylogenetic analysis; RT-PCR; Two-component signal system

Cytokinins play many vital roles in plant development and physiology. In plants, cytokinin signals are sensed and transduced by the two-component signal system. This signaling cascade is typically composed of three proteins: a sensory histidine kinase, a histidine phosphotransfer protein, and a response regulator. Through a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the maize (Zea mays ... more

Z.X. Chu; Q. Ma; Y.X. Lin; X.L. Tang; Y.Q. Zhou; S.W. Zhu; J. Fan; B.J. Cheng
Cucumis sativus L.; Lipoxygenase; Phylogenetic analysis

Plant lipoxygenase (LOX) is involved in growth and developmental control processes, through the biosynthesis of regulatory molecules and defense responses to pathogens, wounding and stress. To date, few LOX proteins and little tissue expression profiling have been reported in detail for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Recent completion of the cucumber genome sequence now permits ... more

S.Q. Liu; X.H. Liu; L.W. Jiang
COI; Phylogenetic analysis; Tegillarca granosa

Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, ... more

S.Y. Chee; M.N. Devakie; M.N.Siti Azizah
D-loop; Genetic diversity; Mitochondrial gene; Persian Gulf; Phylogenetic analysis; Sea turtles

Genetic diversity of sea turtles (hawksbill turtle) was studied using sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, D-loop region). Thirty dead embryos were collected from the Kish and Qeshm Islands in the Persian Gulf. Analysis of sequence variation over 890 bp of the mtDNA control region revealed five haplotypes among 30 individuals. This is the first time that Iranian haplotypes have been ... more

M. Tabib; H. Zolgharnein; M. Mohammadi; M.A. Salari-Aliabadi; A. Qasemi; S. Roshani; H. Rajabi-Maham; F. Frootan
Cyclin; Gene duplication; Phylogenetic analysis; Zea mays

Cyclins are primary regulators of the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases and play crucial roles in cell cycle progression in eukaryotes. Although extensive studies have revealed the roles of some cyclins and underlying mechanisms in plants, relatively few cyclins have been functionally analyzed in maize. We identified 59 cyclins in the maize genome, distributed on 10 chromosomes; these ... more

X. Hu; X. Cheng; H. Jiang; S. Zhu; B. Cheng; Y. Xiang
Diarrhea; Phylogenetic analysis; Piglets; Porcine group C rotavirus; VP6 gene

Group C rotavirus (RV-C) has been found in Brazilian pig herds; however, wild-type strains have not yet been characterized. We made a molecular analysis of a region of gene 5 in Brazilian RV-C strains. Stool samples from 11 piglets (diarrheic and with normal consistency) positive for the RV-C VP6 gene in an RT-PCR assay were sequenced. A 270-bp amplicon of nine sequences was analyzed. All ... more

K.C. Médici; A.F. Barry; A.F. Alfieri; A.A. Alfieri
Glycine betaine; Osmoadaptation; Phylogenetic analysis; Transportation

Substrate-binding subunits are important components of the solute importation system, known as the osmoprotectant system, which consists of a membrane protein belonging to the ABC superfamily. These molecules recognize specific substrates that have different physiological roles in prokaryotes, i.e., roles that contribute to the survival of these organisms in environments with high ... more

T.J.D. Coutinho; N.F. Rodrigues; S.T. Farias