Research Article

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Apis mellifera; Drone flying power; Pupal infestation; Sperm production; Varroa destructor

We developed a bioassay to measure the flying power of drone, in order to determine which drones could reach a drone congregation area. A wind tunnel was used to test unparasitized drones and drones slightly parasitized by one or two mites during pupal development, and counts were made of the number of spermatozoa that they produced. Drones parasitized with one mite flew as long as ... more

P. Duay; D. De Jong; W. Engels
Apis mellifera; Honey bee; Intranuclear acid phosphatase activity; Post-embryonic development

We report nuclear acid phosphatase activity in the somatic (intra-ovariolar and stromatic) and germ cells of differentiating honey bee worker ovaries, as well as in the midgut cells of metamorphosing bees. There was heterogeneity in the intensity and distribution of electron dense deposits of lead phosphate, indicative of acid phosphatase activity in the nuclei of these tissues, during ... more

Cda Cruz Landim; R.Daniele Reginato; R.Lucia More de Moraes; V.Melo Cavalcante
Africanized; Apis mellifera; Effective reproduction; Fertility; Reproduction; Varroa

Varroa destructor reproductive success is considered an important character for determining the resistance of honey bees to this mite parasite. However, most of the published data are not comparable due to the different methods of ascertaining and reporting reproduction. A recently published technique that involves reconstructing mite families in older worker brood gives ... more

M.H. Corrêa-Marques; L.Medina Medina; S.J. Martin; D. De Jong
Apis mellifera; Bioinformatics; doublesex gene; Evolution of genes; Molecular genetics; Sex determination; Sexual development; Transcription factors

A comparison of the most conserved sex-determining genes between the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the honey bee, Apis mellifera, was performed with bioinformatics tools developed for computational molecular biology. An initial set of protein sequences already described in the fruit fly as participants of the sex-determining cascade was retrieved from the Gene ... more

A.S. Cristino; A.Mendes do Nascimento; Lda Fontour Costa; Z.Luz Paulin Simões
Adult size; Apis mellifera; Diploid and haploid drones; Larval cuticular hydrocarbons; Sperm DNA content; Vitellogenin; Wing hooks

Diploid males have long been considered a curiosity contradictory to the haplo-diploid mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera. In Apis mellifera, ‘false’ diploid male larvae are eliminated by worker cannibalism immediately after hatching. A ‘cannibalism substance’ produced by diploid drone larvae to induce worker-assisted suicide has been hypothesized, but it has never ... more

M. Herrmann; T. Trenzcek; H. Fahrenhorst; W. Engels
Apis mellifera; Bee; Mucus gland; Reproductive apparatus

We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This ... more

Cda Cruz Landim; R.Pires Dallacqua
Apis mellifera; Evolution of parasite-host relations; Integumental wounds; Multiple brood infestation; Pathogen invasion; Varroa destructor

The ectoparasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor, is highly adapted to its natural and adopted honey bee hosts, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Adult females perforate the integument of bee pupae in such a way that they and their progeny can feed. We examined the wounds that founder females made, and usually found one, and rarely up to three, integumental wounds ... more

G. Kanbar; W. Engels
Apis mellifera; Honey bees; Hygienic behavior; Removing; Uncapping

Most research on hygienic behavior has recorded the time taken by the colony to remove an experimental amount of dead brood, usually after one or two days. We evaluated the time that hygienic (H) and non-hygienic (NH) honey bees take to uncap and remove dead brood in observation hives after the brood was killed using the pin-killing assay. Four experimental colonies were selected as ... more

M.Alejandra Palacio; J.Manuel Flores; E. Figini; S. Ruffinengo; A. Escande; E. Bedascarrasbure; E. Rodriguez; L.Segui Gonçalves
Africanized; Apis mellifera; Bee nutrition; Bradford; Protein diets

The superiority of Africanized over European honey bees in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World is both well documented and poorly understood. As part of an effort to try to understand the process by which the displacement of European bees occurred, we examined the ability of these two types of bees and of hybrids between the two to convert natural and artificial diets into ... more

F.A. Cappelari; A.P. Turcatto; M.M. Morais; D. De Jong
Africanized honey bees; Apis mellifera; body fluid; Carniolan honey bees; Hygienic behavior; pin-killing method

In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 ... more

K.P. Gramacho; L.S. Gonçalves